What is Deep Dyeing ? What is Pretreatment Process?

Deep Dyeing Process Definition

Deep dyeing machine
Deep dyeing is the process by which the is dyed partially. In this process dyeing is completed by sinking the garments in the dye bath. This gives the garments a unique look.
Influencing Factors for Dyeing
During dyeing with reactive dyes, following important factors are to be considered

  • The pH of the bath Pretreatment Process
  • The temperature of bath
  • The concentration of the electrolyte
  • The time of dyeing
  • The liquor ratio

Process Requirements
Equipment used
Special type of machine is used for deep dyeing program. It consist hanger where the garment are hanged.
Key Accessories
Key accessories used in dyeing with reactive dyes are :
• Mixing tank
• Machine Tank
• pH meter
• Hanger Pretreatment Process
• Eye protecting glass
• Hand gloves
• Hand lifter for carrying the batch, and
• Gum boot.
Materials / Chemicals used Following materials/chemicals are used in the dyeing with reactive dyes process:
• Water
• Steam
• Compressed Air
• Wetting agent
• Sequestering agent
• Acid
• Anti-creasing agent
• Glauber salt,
• Soda ash, etc.

Safety: In order to ensure floor and personnel safety floor personnel are instructed to follow the safety guidelines given below:
• Smoking is strictly prohibited in the factory premises.
• Put on the safety masks while mixing or transferring alkali and acid.
• Be cautious while handling caustic soda and use hand gloves, eye protecting glass for safety.
• During production, after reaching at the optimum temperature (above 800C), operator must use hand gloves, eye-protecting glass etc. while performing such task for safety.

4 Operation Procedure
4.1 Operation Staff
Operation stuffs for Dyeing process include:

  1. Factory Manager
  2. Assistant Manager
  3. Sr. Production Officer
  4. Production Officer
  5. Supervisor
  6. Operator
  7. Helper
    4.2 Checklist before Operation
    Following are the items to be checked before production:
    a) Checking the programme in Beacon Controller
    b) Machine set-up
    c) Garment weight
    d) Garment quality
    e) Dyes availability
    f) Chemical availability
    g) Power availability
    h) Steam availability
    i) Water availability
    j) Compressed air
    k) Manpower availability
    l) Garment stitch is done properly
    4.3 Operation Procedure

The sequence for deep dyeing process with Starfix dyes is as follows:

  1. Hot wash the garments
  2. Hang the garments in the hanger
  3. Take water bath in deep dye machine at required level
  4. Add dyes solution in the water bath
  5. Add G.salt and soda ash
  6. Mix them well
  7. Hang the garments in the machine in the machine hanger
  8. Now gradually sink the garments by manual operated up down switch
  9. The lower portion of the garments will be deeper then the upper portion
  10. Check the shade with approved shade
  11. Rinse and Drain
  12. Unload

4.4 Machine /Area Cleaning
The daily cleaning for machines are described below:
a) Clean chemical chambers by water flow.
b) Clean the floor by water flow.
c) Machine Oiling by oil or greases done by the Mechanical Maintenance Department.
5 Applicable Forms & Documents
5.1 Forms & Documents Used
Following forms and reports are used for dyeing process:

  1. Process Batch Card
  2. Process Recipe Card
  3. Production Report Format
  4. Document Flow
    Document flow for the pre-treatment process can be enumerated as below:
    Dyeing Department receives the Process Batch Card attached to it from the Batch Preparation Section.
    Based on the shade and other specification plans for the machines are prepared.
    Print-out of the recipe is taken from the computer. The Recipe Card is used as an internal document to keep record of dyeing for a particular batch.
    Availability of chemicals and dyestuff is checked and program is put in the Bacon Controller.
    The recipe shit Card is used to keep track of the dyeing procedure continuity. Production Officer fills out different areas of the form. This is an internal document of the dyeing department.
    The Operator fills out the Production Report and it is sent to the Planning department. This report contains information like the Quantity produced, Machine wise production, Amount of re-process, Machine utility percentage (%) and shift wise production.
    Upon completion of dyeing for a particular batch, if the dyeing is ‘OK’, then this garment is sent to the Finishing Department along with batch card.

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