Definition & List of Sewing Machine

Sewing machine is a machine  is developed by Bernina, juki, janome, elna, pfaff which is used to stitch fabric, cards or other materials together with thread. Usually an overlock sewing machine will cut the edges of the cloth as they are fed  though some are made without cutters. Overlock stitches are very versatile, as they can be used for adornment,  einforcement. The people should be trained  how to use a sewing machine.

List of Sewing Machine.

List of sewing machine of sewing machine is given below –

Different types of sewing machine:

In this factory different types of sewing machine are available. By using them they perform different operations. Some of them and their purposes are mentioned below are mentioned below:


SNLS (Single Needle Lock Stitch) – Used to perform all types of tacks

O/L (Over-lock) – Used to join two part like; side seam, sleeve join, shoulder join etc.

F/L (Flat-lock) – Used to perform all forms of hem, zigzag and top stitch

Button attach- For attaching buttons

Button hole- To make hole for button

Snap button –

Bar tack – For the purpose of bar tack

Thread trimmer – For trimming thread

Piping Cutter – for the purpose of cutting piping

Back tape machine – To attach back tape

Types of stitch: Hemming: Hems give edges (like necklines and the ends of sleeves and pant legs) a smooth, completed appearance.

Zigzag: These can slow down raveling along the edges of seams.


Basting: A longer length straight stitch, basting is faster and easier to tear out than normal stitching.

Backstitch: This classic stitch works great for holding fabric together—even large pieces that have to take a lot of strain.


Tacking: Tacking is any sort of casual stitch that holds small areas fabric in place, sort of like a soft, permanent safety pin. The whip stitch (shown below) works well for this.


Other types of stitch which are commonly done are mentioned below:

  1. Chain stitch
  2. Saddle stitch
  3. Slag stitch/ blind stitch
  4. Tiny over-lock

Parts of the machine: Parts of some the sewing machines are mentioned below:


  1. Tension post- 5
  2. Hand wheel
  3. Cotton stand
  4. 3/2/1 needle
  5. Needle bar
  6. Feed dog
  7. Paddle

Among the 5 tension posts two for looper, spreader is attached with the top 2. Where 3 for needle.


  1. Hand wheel
  2. Stitch counter
  3. Panel board
  4. Handle for back stitch
  5. Thread take up looper
  6. Switch for back stitch.


  1. Tension post-4
  2. Guide
  3. Eye guard
  4. Needle-2
  5. Knife

Button attaches:

  1. Tension post
  2. Panel board

Figure of a common type of sewing machine: Guides, attachment and holder: For some specific operations, to make operations more precise and easier guide, attachments and holders are used. Some of them are mentioned below;

For plain machine:

  1. Three types of threads are used. They are:

A -Type (for top stitch)

D – Type (for top stitch)

F – Type (for piping)

  1. Plain pressure feed ( 1/16, 3/16, 1/4, 3/8, 1/32, 1/8)
  2. Gathering guide- Spring guide

Flat guide

Binder folder

For F/L:

Folder- 1fold (5 mm-25mm)

2 fold (5mm- 25mm)

Attachment set 2 types:

  1. F- Type
  2. D- Type

For O/l:

  1. Folder
  2. Rowage gate
  3. O/l type-


5- thread

6- thread

Some other types of guides are mentioned below:

  1. Hem and bend folder
  2. Elastic binder
  3. Right angle binding with piping etc.

Process flow layout of Tank top:

  1. Back and front matching
  2. Shoulder joint- 1 side
  3. Label make
  4. Care label joint
  5. Main label joint
  6. Neck binding
  7. Neck tack
  8. Shoulder joint- other side
  9. Shoulder chap tack
  10. Armhole piping
  11. Side seam
  12. Arm hole chap tack

Process flow layout of Polo shirt:

  1. Back and front match
  2. Shoulder joint
  3. Label make
  4. Label joint
  5. Placket rolling
  6. Placket top stitch (1/4)
  7. Placket nose tack
  8. Collar servicing
  9. Collar tack
  10. Collar joint
  11. Back tape attach
  12. Back tape top stitch
  13. Tape tack
  14. Placket top stitch (1/16)
  15. Box tack at placket
  16. Placket box stitch
  17. Cuff joint
  18. Sleeve joint
  19. Side seam
  20. Body hem
  21. Side vent measurement
  22. Side vent tape joint
  23. Side vent top stitch
  24. Side vent chap tack

Process flow layout of basic T- shirt:

  1. Back and front match
  2. Shoulder joint- 1 side
  3. Label joint
  4. Neck binding
  5. Neck tack
  6. Shoulder joint after neck piping
  7. Back tape attach
  8. Back tape tack
  9. Sleeve hem
  10. Sleeve join
  11. Armhole top stitch
  12. Side seam
  13. Sleeve chap tack
  14. V- tack
  15. Labe joint at back part
  16. Body hem

Activity of maintenance department:

  1. The supply power for every mechanism and everything
  2. Dirt, oil and stain are handled by them
  3. At the beginning of new layout machine setup is done by them.

Some terms or formula are used to calculate capacity and productivity:

SMV( Standard minute Value): Time at which a complete garment will be completed by a skilled operator with a proper working environment.

SMV=  Basic time * Allowances

Here, Allowance of SNLS- 19%

F/L and O/L- 20%

Manual operation- 11- 12%

Target / Production= NET/ SM


N= No. of manpower

E= Expected efficiency

T= Working time

SM= Standard minute

Efficiency = (Standard Hr Produced /Total worked Hr) x 100

=[(No of produced Gmts. x SMV of that Gmt.)/No

of operators x working min] x 100

=SMV x Qty / No. Workers x working min] x100

Line Efficiency = (Total Earned Minutes/ Total Available minutes) x 100

Total Earned Minutes = No of produced Gmts. X SMV of that Gmt.

Total Available Minutes = No of operators x working minutes

Goal of IE:

  1. Productivity increase
  2. Cost minimization
  3. Wastage elimination

Job responsibility of R & D:

  1. Style analysis
  2. Man- machine check
  3. Capacity balancing
  4. New style information
  5. PP( Attending pre- production meeting)
  6. Attending line layout and providing support
  7. To calculate line-wise efficiency
  8. To monitor production
  9. To find out bottle neck
  10. To perform production study
  11. Calculate NPT time and report
  12. Maintenance report
  13. Style change report
  14. Recruitment
  15. Increment
    Worker counseling
  16. To train up the supervisors
  17. Absenteeism report

Parts of a Sewing Machine:  

Parts of a sewing machine is stated below-

Sewing Machine Parts
Parts of Sewing M/C


  1. Spool Holder
  2. Bobbin
  3. Bobbin Case
  4. Stitch Length Adjustment
  5. Stitch Tension Adjustment
  6. Stitch Pattern Adjustment
  7. Take up Lever
  8. Presser Foot
  9. Presser foot Lifter
  10. Needle plate and Feed Dogs
  11. Needle and Needle Bar
  12. Bobbin Winder
  13. Power Switch
  14. Hand Wheel
  15. Back-sew Button
  16. Foot Pedal

Each Name on Control Box of Hemmer:

Parts of a sewing machine control box is stated below-

Parts of a sewing machine control box
Parts of a Sewing Machine Control Box
  • Detection Lamp
  • Sensitivity adjusting knob
  • Operation count (rear)
  • Power switch
  • Power Lamp
  • Pressure foot lamp
  • Operation count front
  • Clock Lamp

Sewing Machine Installation Instructions:

Please confirm the followings to avoid malfunction or damage to this machine.

  • After installing the machine and before the first operation please clean it completely.
  • Clean all dust and overflowed oil during transportation.
  • Confirm the voltage and the phase of motor are set correctly
  • Confirm that the power plug is correctly connected to the power supply
  • Never use the machine when the local voltage type is different from the marked volage on the nametag attached on the machine
  • Confirm that the rotating direction of the machine pulley is correct
  • Before dong any operation or any adjustment described later in this manual, please turn the power off to prevent accidents caused by abrupt start of the sewing machine.
Sewing Machine Installation Instructions
Sewing Machine Installation Instructions

Sewing Machine Safety Instructions:

For operating safely and getting the best functions of this machine, everybody should operate the machine correctly

  • When the machine is ready for operation, all the safety equipment’s must be ready. Operate the machines without the specified safety devices is not allowed.
  • The machine must be operated by a properly trained operator
  • Before using the machine, please ascertain that it conforms with safety standards and regulations of your country
  • For your own safety, we suggest you wearing googles.
  • Do not touch any functioning parts and devices. Always attend t o whether power switch is on or off before operating in order to prevent anyone from getting hurts.
  • Qualified technicians are required for adjustment, modification, and repair. Only use assigned parts for replacement.
  • Routine maintenance and service must be performed by will trained person, or qualified technicians.
  • Maintain and check the electronic parts must be done by qualified or malfunctioned, stop the machine immediately.
  • To ensure the best performance periodically clean the machine is necessary.
  • Select proper power plug and install it by an electrician. Please connect the power plug to grounded receptacle

Standard Operating Procedure For Sewing Machine Floor:

  • Need approved trim card.
  • All patterns should be signature by pattern manager.
  • Duplicate counter sample should be hanged in front of line with counter comments & sample must be signature by sample manager.
  • Must have country plan & shade plan in sewing line.
  • Garments should not keep on the floor.
  • Machine needs to clean in every morning before starting works. If any issue report to mechanic & solve the problem immediately or change the machine.
  • In-seam & out-seam should be sewing from bottom to top.
  • Polyester label & elastic must be cut by heat cutter.
  • 7 pieces audit for covering all machine.
  • Same number parts need to be sewing for each garment.
  • Un-even layer should be control.
  • Twisting should be check/control (100% follow the cut mark).
  • Process QC & end of the line QC should be make report hourly.
  • Floor QC in-charge should be complete styling from every line with counter sample.
  • Needle guard & eye guard should be use for all machines sewing floor.
  • Foods are not allowed inside the sewing floor.
  • Scissors & cutters need to fasten with the machine.
  • All measuring tape should be caliber & need to be change in every three months.
Standard Operating Procedure For Sewing Machine Floor
Standard Operating Procedure For Sewing Machine Floor

Sewing Machine History:

Overlock Sewing Machine

The first sewing machine history is patent connected to mechanical sewing was a 1750 British patent issued to German, Charles Weisenthal and he trained peple how to use a sewing machine. Weisenthal was delivered a patent for a old model needle that was designed for a machine, however, the model did not describe the rest of the machine if one existed.

[1]  Abdullah Al  Chemi, Staff Reporter at Latest Bd News, B.Sc. in Apparel Manufacture & Technology, BUFT