Principle of foam test procedure
The conditions in batchwise exhaust treatment on a winch beck are simulated. foam test procedure is generated by beating the test solution in a stationary cylinder with a perforated disk attached to a stem. Volume and stability of the foam are determined by measuring the amount immediately after beating and after prolonged standing, and compared with those of known products. Read more about Foamboard Printing
1000-ml measuring cylinder
perforated disk (foam plunger)
Ahiba foam beater (developed in-house )
The product to be tested is dissolved in de-ionized water and in water of 10° dH (12.5° Clark). A 2 g/l solution is generally used but a higher or lower concentration can be chosen, depending on the foaming properties of the product.
The test is usually carried out at a temperature of 25°C + 2°C. In exceptional cases it can also be performed at higher temperatures.
200 ml test solution is poured into the measuring cylinder, care being taken to avoid foaming. The cylinder contents are foamed by moving the plunger up and down 60 times at an even rate for 1 min. At each stroke the perforated plate is raised from the bottom to about the 1000-ml mark on the cylinder. After 1 min the plunger is taken out.
The amount of foam in ml between the top of the liquid column and the upper foam surface is measured immediately, after 1 min, after 5 min and after 10 min. foam test procedure
Conventional methods used to determine foaming properties are based primarily on ascertaining the rate of collapse of foam at a given temperature. (–> FHP 00.10, FHP 00.11, FHP 00.12, FHP 00.14).
By and large these provide useful pointers to the foam-forming or antifoam properties of surfactants.
Yet they fail to yield practically relevant information regarding antifoams by making too little allowance for a number of factors with a major impact in application, e.g.
– behaviour at temperatures > 100°C and under pressure
– behaviour at a realistic cycle of temperatures
– continuous foam generation in circulating liquor systems
– influence of textile materials
– influence of processing aids present on the textile
– uptake or filtering out of antifoam components onto the textile
The FOAMY HT foam tester, produced in a joint project with ZELTEX, is a further development of the ” Berendt System”. The new instrument, which consists of a ZELTEX COLORSTAR CS 2 and the ZELTEX FOAMY foam tester, enables foaming properties to be studied under closely simulated mill conditions. The FOAMY operates on the circulation principle. The liquor is pumped through the textile material and through a spray nozzle with defined holes onto the liquor surface, generating foam. The antifoam can be metered in via a sluice. Temperature and time conditions are controlled by the integrated PC 1000 microcomputer. The rate of liquor flow is controlled by a microcomputer integrated in the CS2.
|1.1||Introduction The FOAMY is used in particular to test antifoams such as o Albegal FFA o Albegal FFD o Albatex FFO o Albatex FFC o Cibaflow CIR o Cibaflow JET o corresponding research formulations o and competition products. The procedure is the same for all products: – charge with textile material and a foaming medium – generate foam by circulating liquor through the spray nozzle – add antifoam – start the time/temperature program – note and record the thickness of the foam layer|
See enclosures 1 and 5 for a description and technical data of the COLORSTAR CS and the FOAMY respectively. The description of the PC 1000 is given in enclosure 2.
|1.2||Required amount of antifoam and composition of foaming medium|
|Required amount of antifoam||Composition of foaming medium|
|Albegal FFA Cibaflow CIR||10 ml||10% w/v solution||Ultravon W h.c.(300%) ammonium sulphate adjusted to pH 4.7 with formic acid||0.15 2.0||g/l g/l|
|Albegal FFD||10 ml||10% w/v solution||Ultravon W h.c.(300%) ammonium sulphate adjusted to pH 4.7 with formic acid||0.15 2.0||g/l g/l|
|Albatex FFO||10 ml||4% w/v solution||Ultravon W h.c.(300%) ammonium sulphate adjusted to pH 4.7 with formic acid||0.1 2.0||g/l g/l|
|Albatex FFC Cibaflow JET||10 ml||3% w/v solution||Ultravon W h.c.(300%) ammonium sulphate adjusted to pH 4.7 with formic acid||0.2 2.0||g/l g/l|
|1.3||Textile material 38 g cotton/polyester tricot No. 7-4011. Width of material = 12.5 cm The textile material is wound loosely, without tension, on the FOAMY material support|
|1.4||Time / temperature program The tests on the antifoams listed above are all performed under the same time/temperature conditions. The conditions are stored in the PC 1000 control unit.. Enclosure 3.|
|1.5||Procedural steps with the FOAMY|
Keyboard and display of the PC 1000 control unit ( A below)
Keyboard and display of the CS 2 control unit ( B below)
|Liquor flow rate||Full||Rinse||Drain|
|Key to activate the liquor flow rate control||Key to activate the differential pressure control||Const.||Pump|