Carding Machine

Carding Machine is used for fibers, which need to pass a sequence of processing to get yarn. This is the first step of spinning process. Spinning of textile fibers may be carded and cotton is the most common products all over the world for spinning process is completely different from textile fibers spinning methods. The main task of carding machine are typically similar for all kinds of fiber. There are cotton carding and wool carding available in the market those are different from each other.

Feature of Carding Machine:

  • In reverse way of cylinder working on flats for increasing action and improve of web quality.
  • For flat stripping a comb is generally replaced by cleaning roller.
  • Wool Carding machine reduce noise
  • Carding machine has multi suction that point on card and continuous suction.
  • Front and rear stationary flats and carding segment of carding machine under licker in are fitted.
  • Carding machine is used for carding wool lapping process.
  • Electronic control and digital display similar parameter.
  • It is run by Inverter controlled system, feed roller and doffer drive for stepless speeds.
  • Equipped with metallic card clothing width best quality.
  • Double apron system the web take-off device allowing visual inspection for beautiful look.
  • It exist automatic stop motion devices.

Textile Fibers :

Meticulously designed three licker-in structure can make fine and full textile fibers and fabrics open, greatly increase fiber separation and orientation, reduce cylinderand and flat clothing load, extend clothing duration, enhance wool carding efficiency in cylinder-flat area, reduce neps and short staple. Front/rear stationery flats is made by aluminum alloy, featured by gradual increase density arrangement, good tip neatness and convenient gage adjustment to ensure textile fibers carding more fully and fine. Visible plastic filtering pipe, fea-tured by smooth and easy main-tenance. Multi continuous suction points. `

Textile Fibers
Textile Fibers

Objective of Carding

The carding protects essentially involves the opening of the fibre aggregates by working them between two closely spaced surfaces covered with inclined wires.

The main objective of carding are:-

  • To carry further process of fibre opening to a state of individual fibres.
  • To remove naps, tiny lumps of fibre and fused fibre ends.
  • To make the fibres to provide a uniform distribution.
  • To deliver a continuous sliver for further processes.
  • As we know that “carding is the heart of the spinning”

The material fed to the carding machine is in the form of lap which is here by mean of chute feed system from the blow room, there are three outlets from the blow room line serves three group of card A, B, C. A & B lines in the carding department are the same but the line C employs the better quality. There are 4 cards in line A, 5 cards in line B and 6 cards in line C. In Malwa Industries Ltd. all cards are made by RIETER and havingmodel C-50 which is the latest model of card. The waste removal at the carding stage is 5-6%. The waste % of both carding and blow room is 10-11% in which 2.5-3% is flat waste and rest of 7-8% is dropping the cleaning efficiency of card alone is about 90-95% and the cleaning efficiency along with blow room is 99%.



The C-50 carding machine is settled with a closed loop control for minimizing the sliver irregularity. The drives are given by mean of belt. Here for grinding purpose automatic grinding roller is incorporated in card. The setting of the feed roller and the step roll at the delivery end are made by mean of a voltage setting at the respective points for example: step roll setting is set at 8 inch by mean of 2.p0 setting corresponding to a voltage of 3700W.


Cylinder speed                   =   550rpm

Flat speed                          =   0.26m/min

Delivery speed                  =    244mpm

Total draft                         =    98.1 – 98.3

Production                         =   95 kgs/hrs.

Corresponding factor       =  1.245

Can capacity                     = 52kgs

Sliver length                     =  8010m

Specifications of Yarn Carding Machine:

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[label type=”label” title=”Specifications Value”]

Product Category


Machine Category

Carding Machine

Product Name

Cotton carding machine in yarn spinning

Product Model

According to Manufacturer

Product Class





Name of Manufacturer

Agent In Bangladesh



6.88kw total





Production Capacity






Sliver Weight


Deliver Fixed Weight


Feed Fixed Weight


Spinning Method

Ring Spinning



Delivery Speed






Coiler Can Size


Cylinder Dia


Doffer Dia


Doffer Speed


Cylinder Speed


Taker-In Roller Dia


Taker-In Roller Speed


Stationary Flats

Front 4 rear 7 stationary flats;Front 1 rear 1 web purifier

Flat Speed


Flat Quantity

Revolning flats 82pcs/working flats 30pcs

Range Of Application

Cotton/chemical fiber and blends


Maxmium 50


Carding Machine owns special three roller stripping cotton device for making fiber

Parts of Carding Machine:

Fibers for Carding Machine
Carding Machine Parts

Textile Fibers Analysis Test:

Textile Fibers Burning test: Blow out the flame if still burning and smell the smoke. Note the odour and examine the color and nature of any ash or residue.

  • Take a small tuff of fibers (in this case yarn) and place close of the side of a small flame. Note if the fiber melt or shrink from the flame.
  • Move the fibre into the flame. Note whether the fibred burn and when held in the flame. Remove from the flame very slowly and note whether they continue to burn outside the flame.
  • Compare the behavior observed with that of the table flame retardant modification of some fibre cotton, rayon and acetate has retardate burning. Odour or burning and ash may be changed. Colored fibers especially those colored by pigments-will retain color in the color residue.
  • The vegetable fibre and regenerated cellulose (rayon) small like burning paper. Animal fiber and manmade protein fibers has odour of burning hair or feathers. Other manned fibre like acrylic nylon and spandex have characteristic odour which can be recognized with experience.
Type of fibreMelts near flameShrinkage from flameBurns in flameContinuous to burnAppearance of ash
Cotton/celluloseNoNoYesYesLight grayish
WoolYesYesYesSlowlyIrregular Blake
PolyesterYesYesYesYesHard Blake round bead
NylonYesYesYesYesHard gray round bead

Textile Fibers Solubility test: For test as room temperature (20°C) place a small sample of fibres in a watch crystal test tube or 50ml beaks and cover with the test solvent. Use above 1 ml of solvent per 10 gm of fibre.

 Hydrochloric acidSulfuric acidSulfuric acidFormic acid
Concentration (%)


Temperature (°C)

Time (minute)


















Microscopically cross section analysis: Obtain a parallel bundle of yarn. Use a sharp razor blade to make smooth cuts of the yarn, slides are prepared and viewed under magnification of 200-500 X compare with the cross section of known fibre.

Carding wool Making Tools
Carding wool Cross

Carding Feature:

  • 70% of the quality will be achieved in carding,  if the wires are selected properly
  • Following Table Can Be  Used As A Guide Line  For Cylinder Wire Selection If micronaire is lower than 3.5, cylinder speed should be around 350rpm. If micronaire is within 3.5-4.0, it is about 450 rpm if it is more than 4.0, it is about 500 rpm.
  • The lower the mike, the lower the licker in speed ranging from 800-1150rpm depending on mike & production rate.
  • Pointed wires should be used for cylinder.
  • TSG grinder should be  used once in 2 months for consistent quality.
  • Flat tops should be ground frequently (once in 3 months) for better yarn quality as flat tops play a major role in reducing neps & kitties in yarn. Emery fillet rollers should be used for flat tops grinding, instead of using grinding roller grinding stone.
  • Licker-in wire should be changed for every 150000kgs production in carding.
  • Stationary flats should be changed for every 150000kgs production in carding.
  • Individual card studies up to yarn stage should be conducted regularly, & if quality is deteriorated by 25% from average quality. Card should be attended (wire mounting, grinding, full-setting etc to be done).
  • Setting between cylinder & flat tops should be as close as possible, depending on variation between cylinder & flat tops. Care should be taken so that, wires do not touch each other.
  • Card auto levellers should be set properly. Nominal draft should be correct. Draft deviation should not be more than 5% during normal working.
  • Card stoppages should be as low as possible.
  • Slow speed working of cards should be avoided. Slivers produced during slow speed should be removed.
  • 10 meters C.V% of card sliver should be less than 2.0.
  • Sliver weight difference between cards should not be more than 2.5%.
  • Sliver U% should be less than 3.5 & spectrogram peaks should be attended.
  • Cylinder loading should be nil & if is loaded, wire should be inspected & accordingly grinding should be done or wire should be changed.
  • Sliver diameter difference should be less. Calendar roller pressure should be same  in all cards
  • Trash in sliver should be less than 0.1%
  • Uniformity ratio of sliver should be same or better than raw cotton
  • If kitties or seed coat fragments are more, higher flat speeds should be used & as much as flat waste should be removed to reduce seed coat fragments in yarn
  • In general sliver hank varies from 0.12 to 0.14
  • Individual card studies should be conducted up to yarn stage, if quality from a particular card is bad, immediate action to be taken to rectify problem. The lower the variations, the better the yarn quality.

Carding wool Making Tools:

Carding wool making tools are described below-

Cylinder and Licke-in:  The structure of driving cylinder and licker-in with flat belt is very easy and simple. The driving cylinder is smooth and stable.

Doffer: The doffer is run by an inverter as well as synchronous belt. The synchronous belt control stepless variations of the speed.

Cross Apron :Cross apron is used for sliver guiding and easy operation.

Feed Roller: The feed roller is run by an electronic frequency converter. The electronic converter permits stepless variation of its speed and it is controled to be synchronized with doffer by the computer.

Pressure Mechanism: Pressure mechanism of the machine delivers the consistence amount the pressure and the measurement.

Multi suction point: Multi suction of the device is pointed on card

Flats: The flats increase carding activities to improve web quality. For flat stripping comb is replaced by brushing roller and the cleaning roller.

Electric control system: The electronic control cabinet of card control doffer’s and feed motor’s speed for making a stepless variable-speed and run it at the rate, with a smooth speed up and down, that is why carding machine running steadily and reliably for making carding wool

[1] Mir Kawser Sohel, Fashion Merchandising