What Is Line Balancing ?
After 3 days new style output , need get capacity in each operator to find out the line bottle neck areas and each bottleneck operations need to have a plan to improve by using method and time study tools. By using this capacity studies and technique of Engineered Garments line has to re-balance to solve the bottle necks. Required monitoring of each individual operator efficiency till the line reached their plan targets. Production account team will monitoring the hourly production in each line and will update progress in hourly basic. Line R&D officer will update the line blanching graph as per actual output so that easy to identify the fall back operation and can take the action fast , Also Line balancing graphs of Garments Worker required to get sign by PM/Factory Manager/GM.
What Is Line Balancing Preparation?
- Study the Operation Bulleting along with the sample
- Selecting the correct workers for each process by analyzing their past records.
- Call up a meeting for Supervisors & Operators to make them understand of the new style and also new Targets, incentive, build up & Delivery date.
- Skill requirement to be given to HR department for arranging additional Manpower.
- Anticipate & emphasize on providing training on operations which can be a bottlenecks. Identification of the Line as per the Production Plan.
- Instructions & Guidance given to COT by the Unit Head.
- Stitching 2 pcs of Sample by, Line supervisor and Sr. Line Supervisor, and Line Quality Supervisor will follow up the quality points.
- Target rates been considered & verified while the sample is been made.
- A meeting called by the Unit Head to review the PP Sample.
- All the points are discussed, clarified & understood by the COT.
- Any construction, method or attachment issue will be cleared.
What Is Line Balancing With Engineered Garments?
- Every engineered garments process officers need to involve for the improvements their own line.
- Need to keep records of old and new method etc..Photos/video clips.
- Engineered garments need involved of the cost Saving activities to get the best productivity for the company
- Every Line of engineered garments need to do 3 improvements per week for the Goal
- Operator skill monitoring & update need to done daily basic
- Fabric & Operation analysis.
- Mock up making in critical operation with using correct folder/gauge and attachments
- Method studies
- Machine, gauge, folder & Manpower requirement and availability
- Understand the Operation Bulletin and Machine Layout
- Review the Production plan
- Training start if required in critical operations
Garment Manufacturing Process – Review Meeting
- Required study closely the new Style Construction with Sketch or Sample
- Highlight the area that Construction need to be Changed for the photo ( development ) sample
- Compare with similar styles construction & finalized easy methods with available machinery
- R&D manager , Maintenance manager , Technical head, concern Merchandiser, Sample Head , Unit head , Quality Manager need to be attend the style review meeting
- Comments & suggestions need to apply for the new style & if required need to send the mock up for Buyer to get it approval through Merchandiser,
- Need to keep the records of SMV saving.
- First initial Bulletin need garment manufacturing process within 2 days of Review meeting.
- Once we received the approved Sample, will finalize the bulletin. Final bulletin need to get approved from Factory Manager/ GM.
- Line Target has to go to the R&D Dept. machine, manpower, work station, special machine with attachment & critical operation need to be identified and calculate.
- If any Construction changes required, it has to be taken in -writing for change the bulletin.
- Machinery / Attachments / Gauge/ Manpower requirements need to calculate for next 3 months. If any Special Machine/Gauge/attachment/folders required, it has to be address well in advance to Factory Manager/GM.
Garment Manufacturing Process – Special Foot Arrangements
- Every new style Folder requirement need to submit after fit approval sample received.
- If required special pressure foots, gauge or attachment will advise to the maintenance department before 30 days of bulk.
- New Styles Sticker/Cage placement need to mark in mini marker and will confirm the placement after discussed with PM, IE and Cutting manager ( before size set or pilot run cut)
- This Sticker placements will be given to CAD dept after having proper signatures by Technical / Cutting Manager / Quality manager /R&D /Factory Manager/GM
- After analysis pilot run, if required to change any sticker/cage placements it should be informed in proper in writing to the CAD dept
Checklist for Pilot run before 15 days to input
- Operation bulleting and Machine Layout Availability of Fabrics & Trims
- Size set approval
- PP sample approval
- Mock up making for Critical operations
- Technical File & PP Approved Sample
- Folder and Attachments in-house
- Micro Mc planning for pilot line
Garment Manufacturing Process – PP Meeting
- Meeting with complete production Factory Manager/ PM /Line Chief / Supervisor/QA/ Maintenance / R&D need to be discuss.
- All Process Parameters, Special precaution in the process, Process check list with responsibility
- Quality Plan with responsibility.
- Trims & Accessories in house status.
- Critical operation need to discuss and quality points.
- Machine / Manpower / Attachment / Method / Layout review.
- 10 Days before Input this meeting will be held.
- Complete changing the first 40% of operations within the first day.
- Change up to 70 % within 2 days.
- Get the first Line output by 3rd day
Engineered Garments – Change Over Team
- Team Leader – Sr. Line Supervisor
- Front, Back & Assembly Supervisor.
- R&D officer
- Quality Supervisor
- Mechanic In-charge & Assistant
Minimize the wastage during garment manufacturing process
Wastage of material:
- Stationery utensils &
- By reducing rejection.
- By reducing alteration.
- By reducing consumption &
- By creating consciousness.
- Wastage of Human Hour:
- By Motivation.
- By developing working method.
- By reducing unnecessary use of Man/Machine.
- By ensuring available supply of materials.
- By reducing the material handling (by keeping them in the minimum distance)
- By reducing unnecessary movement.
- By grow up consciousness
Importance of garment manufacturing process
- To reduce unnecessary work or excessive work.
- Maximum utilization of resources.
- Reduced additional expenditures.
- Time reduced.
- Productivity increase.
- To find the best method.
- Effective production planning & controlling.
Method Study: Method Study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing & proposed ways of doing work, as a means of developing & applying easier & more effective methods & reducing costs.
Objectives of Method Study:
- Improvement of process & procedure.
- Improvement in the design of plant & equipment.
- Improvement of layout.
- Improvement in the use of men, materials & machines.
- Economy in human effort & reduction of unnecessary fatigue.
- Improvement in safety standards.
- Development of better working environment.
Method Study Procedure: SREDDIM is key word of Method study procedure.
Work Measurement: Work Measurement is an application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance.
- Techniques of Work Measurement
- Techniques of Work Measurement:
- Time study.
- Work Sampling.
- Synthesis from standard data.
- (Analytical Estimating & Comparative Estimating.)
IE Tools, Terms & Techniques:
SMV & Efficiency: It is the time required to complete one piece of garment by a qualified(standard) operator at standard condition.
Efficiency: Efficiency is a ratio of produce minute & spent minute.
Bottleneck & Line balancing:
Bottleneck: Minimum Production capacity work station of a line is called “Bottleneck Position.”
Result of Bottleneck:
- Production Loss.
- Productivity Fail.
- Bad Quality.
- Increase cost of manufacturing.
- Reason of stain(dirty, oil).
- Indiscipline work station.
- Long lead time.
Line balancing: Equal distribution of workloads in each work station of a working line is called line balancing.
Objective of Line balancing:
- Everyone is doing the same amount of work.
- No one is overloaded.
- No one is waiting.
- Everyone working together in a BALANCED fashion.
Techniques of Line balancing:
- Split the task.
- Share the task.
- Use Parallel work station.
- Improving Non-bottleneck Process.
Production & Productivity:
Production: Production may simply be defined as the function of acquiring inputs and transforming them into outputs desired by customer.
Productivity: Productivity is a ratio to measure how well an organization converts input resources into goods & services.
Different types of Productivity measures:
- Single factor Productivity.
- Multi factor productivity.
- Total factor productivity
Operation Bulletin/ M/C Breakdown: Operation bulletin is a listing of the content of a job by elements. A garment consists of some parts & some group of operations. Operation bulletin means to writing down all parts & all process/operation after one another lying with the complete garment according to process sequence. It is a must to write down the estimated SMV & type of machine beside each & every process.
Allocate the M/P & Job design:Product type wise M/P allocation & Proper job design is most important thing for better Productivity. Job design involves specifying the content & methods of jobs. Job design focus on:
- What will be done in a job ?
- Who will do the job ?
- How the job will done ?
- Where the job will be done ?
Tools for job design:
- Job Enlargement.
- Job Rotation.
- Job Enrichment.
Data base maintain:
- SMV data bank.
- Skill Matrix.
- Operation Bulletin Bank etc.
VSM: Value Stream Mapping is a method of visually mapping a product’s production path (Material & Information) from door to door.
- Product Family of engineered garments
- Current State Drawing
- Future State Drawing
- Plan & Implementation
- Benefits of VSM
VSM helps to:
- Visualize the product flow.
- Show links between information, material & process.
- Identify source of waste.
- Establish clear future vision for the value stream.
- Prioritize improvement activities.
- Focus attention on key activities that will improve the lead time.
- And reduce the total cost of product.
OEE: OEE is a best practices way to monitor & improve the effectiveness of your manufacturing process. OEE helps to:
Calculation of OEE: OEE=Availability*Performance*Quality
# Availability=(Planned Production Time-Down Time)/Planned Production Time
# Performance= (Total Production*SMV)/Total Operating Time
# Quality= Good Pieces/Total Pieces
The Goal & Benefits of OEE Measurement
Awareness of losses.
Verification that established objectives have been achieved.
Comparison of results in time.
Better Productivity & Profitability.
Wastage :Waste is anything that does not contribute to transforming a part to the customers needs.
- Two types of actions for WASTE
- Waste= can be 100% eliminated.
- Waste= can be reduced of simplified.
Waste has major effect on……….
Labor utilization………to maximize labor working time.
M/C utilization……….to maximize NDT (needle down time).
Space utilization……….to reduce cost related to WIP, Inventories etc.
Type of Wastage: TIMUWOOD is the key word of 8 Wastage.
- Underutilizing people.
- Over production.
- Over processing.
Lean Manufacturing: A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating or reducing waste (non-value added activities) through continuous improvement by flowing the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection. Lean Benefits
- Lead time
- Customer satisfaction
- Customer respnsiveness
- Cash flow
- On time delivery
Lean Tools & Techniques:
- 5s (Workplace Organization)
- Visual control system
- Quick changeover
- Cellular manufacturing(Team work)
- TPM(Total Productive Maintenance)
- Kanban(Instruction card)
- Mistake Proofing
The work study Practitioner: The work study practitioner should be wel-behaved & expert to relation buildup.He should be always overall qualified-
- Honesty & Perseverance.
- Creative & Indoustrious.
- Highly intersted to work.
- Desire to self-improvement.
- Time management practice.
- Situation controlling power.
- Attractive Personlity &
- Finaly he should be CONFIDENT.
Engineered Garments – Avoid Startup Losses
- Study the Technical File & PP approved Sample with the TEAM prior to Pilot Run
- Understand critical areas need special attention
- Necessary Pattern adjustment before bulk cut.
- Identification of critical operations
- Required skill level
- Training time if needed
- Ensure the approval of pattern
- Change the pattern in advance if needed
- Ensure both cuts & Trims are available before start inputs.
- Selecting operators with the correct skill
- Educate & Motivate If need to change another operator
- Encourage to achieve the set Target of the operation
- Arrangement of folder, Templates & guides prior to the Pilot Run
- Setting of all required machines with attachments as per Machine lay-Out prior to start inputs.
- All information regarding quality check points & standards made available.
- Train the QCs on the above.
- Avoid/minimize changes once sewing started.
- Line Chief has to named list for the operators for each operation engineered garments
Engr. Kh. Mashiur Rahman, Garments Auto Machine Technologist, Web: www.autogarment.com, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Cell: +88 017 92 52 53 54