Pad Steam Dyeing Machine

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine is used in textile industry. Thermosol run fabric must pass through pad steam for the development of color when CPS process is carried out. Here chemical padding is done through which color is fixed on the fabric. CPB run fabric does not require pad stem process. Here based on requirement additional dye can also be added.In ATL There are two thermosol machine (Monfort Montex, Thermex) in Dyeing floor. There also 1 CPB (Kuster) & 1 pad steam machine (Goller, Model- 1994) & 1 Zigger machine.For developing color it is the essential machine after thermosoling in CPS process. Generally the color which is applied on the fabric surface is fixed on this stage & provides required color. Here not only chemical padding is done but also application of color is also possible if required shade is not achieved.

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine Specification

  • M/C Name: Goller
  • Origine: Germany
  • Model: 1994
  • Cold wash temperature: 40°C
  • Hot wash temperature: 90 – 100°C
  • Steaming unit temp.: 103 – 105°C

Application area of Pad Steam M/C

  • Wet – Wet dyeing
  • Desizing (Enzymatic Desizing)
  • Wash
  • Re bleach
  • Reduce clean
  • CPS (Wet process)
  • Sulpher dye
  • Shoch Scour
  • CPB
  • Striping

Flow chart of Pad Steam (CPS)

The flow chart of Pad Steam (CPS) is shown here-

Fabric inlet

Color truf       (Room temp. for – CPS, R/C, W/W)

Padder        (2.6-2-2.6) bar

Steaming Unit     (103-105’C)

Cold water tank

Cold wash-1       40’C           600L                3 bar

Hot wash-2      90-100’C     600L                 3 bar

Hot wash-3      90-100’C     600L                 3 bar

Hot wash-4      90-100’C     1200L               3 bar

Hot wash-5      90-100’C     1200L               3 bar

Hot wash-6      90-100’C     600L                 3 bar

Hot wash-7      90-100’C     600L                 3 bar

Cold wash-8        40’C        600L                 3 bar

Dry chamber    (120- 150’C)

Fabric outlet

Sketch Diagram of Pad Steam Dyeing Machine

Sketch Diagram of Pad Steam Dyeing Machine
Sketch Diagram

Different Section of Pad Steam Dyeing Machine

Fabric inlet: From thermosol fabric is feed into the inlet of pad steam machine. Where the fabric is passed over some free roller, parpet roller & platter. Here there is a compensator to control fabric open width entry & controlling fabric speed.

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine – Chemical tank: Application of chemical is higher in pad steam machine. Based on the chemical setting shade is varied. Here for reactive process those chemical are used:

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine - Chemical tank
Chemical tank

A typical recipe for reactive dye:

  1. Glubar salt – 250 gm/lt
  2. Caustic – 5 gm/lt

iii. Soda ash – 20 gm/lt

A typical recipe of W/W dye:

Padder pressure = 3 bar

Speed                = 3m/min

Steaming           = 1.5 min

Nova yellow NC = 5.84 gm/l

Nova brown NC = 2.04 gm/l

Nova blue CD    = 2.9 gm/l

R.salt               = 3 gm/l

Glubar salt       = 10 gm/l

Soda ash          = 10 gm/l

Wetting agent   = 2 gm/l

Chemical is mixed according to required based on pick up. Those are mixed on separate bath then feed. According to the command on control panel chemical comes to chemical tank for padding. If required color also can applied and can added to chemical tank for padding.

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine – Padding unit: Chemical comes from storage tank to maintain even range on padding tank. Here three bowl padding is occurred. Here padder pressure (2.6-2-2.6) bar is maintained.

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine - Padding unit
Padding unit

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine – Steamer:In pad steam machine after chemical padding fabric goes through steamer for fixing. Its consists of two chamber. This chamber is steam heated & temperature is around 100- 105 ‘C. Here fabrics go over few rollers. The length of steamer is 90 meter & fabric is remain here for 1.5 min (approximate)

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine - Steamer

Washing unit: After steaming dye is fixed in fabric. Now unfixed dyestuffs are removed by washing. Here both hot & cold wash is done on different chamber. In cold wash temperature is around 40’C & in cold wash temperature is around 90-100’C. There are 8 washing unit. Where 1& 8 is cold wash unit and 2-7 are hot wash unit.

Oxidation: In this stage, the leuco compound of vat dye is oxidized and converted to its original color & in soluble form. This oxidation is brought about by atmospheric oxygen. It is generally done in 2nd washing unit.

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine  – Neutralizing unit: After washing neutralizing is done to control pH-7 of fabric. It is done by acetic acid. For reactive only one neutralizing chamber is used after washing. Here oxidation is not required.

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine - Neutralizing unit
Neutralizing unit

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine – Dryer:In Pad steam machine two stage vertical cylinder dryer is used for proper drying. Fabric passes over the surface of the cylinder and become dry. This dryer is steam heated. The temperature is around 120-140’C.

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine - Dryer

Cooling roller: After drying in cylinder dryer fabric require cooling. So fabric is passed over the cooling roller. It is stainless steel roller through which cold water is passed.

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine – Fabric outlet: Finally fabric is passed over few rollers & rolled on batcher. If shade is ok then it becomes ready for finishing.

Pad Steam Dyeing Machine - Fabric outlet
Fabric outlet

PDB process-  Chemical and conditions

ChemicalChemical composition
Dye (reactive dye)As per requirement
Ant migrating agent10 g/l
Urea50 g/l for light shade, 100 g/l for dark shade
Soda ash(10-15) g/l
Lyoprint RG2 g/l  (constant)
Wetting agent(1-2) g/l (used when absorbency is poor)

Thermal condition used for PDB (Thermosol / Thermo fix):  In reactive dyeing –

  • Dyeing temperature = (120/ 130) °C for 2 min.
  • Curing temperature = (150/160) °C for 1 min

Recipe for RC solution:

Caustic soda-                                     5 ml/ L

Hydro sulfite-                                    4 g/l

Water temperature-                            (60-70) °C

Chemical and condition for CPS process

DyeAs per requirement
Anti migrating agent10 g/l
Reduction inhibitor e.g. Lyoprint RG3 g/l
Wetting agent2 g/l
Chemical pad solutionComposition
Glubers salt250 g/l
Caustic5 g/l
Lyoprint3 g/l

Pressure, speed, drying and curing parameter of PDD 1 and PDD 2

For heavy fabric drying temperature required for 2 min.These parameter are required only for cotton.

  PDD 2  
ProcessPressure(bar)Speed(m/min)Drying timeCuring time
Upto 5g/l1.253120(2MIN)160(1min)
5-15 g/l13120(2min)160(1min)
Upto 15 g/l12.5120(2min)160(1min)

Process definition: A color development process (Lab dip) in which a sample of 100% cotton fabric is dyed using laboratory equipment to mach customer swatch with specification. There are three different laboratory processes that can be used for color development-

  1. Pad dry bake (PDB): Mostly this process is used for color development.
  2. Pad dry chemical pad steam process (CPS): For Royal Deep blue, Blake and Navy family this process is used.
  3. Cold pad batch (CPB)

Process Requirement:  Equipment Used – Mathis padder machine and Mathis drying & curing machine are used for continuous dyeing of 100% cotton and blended fabric.

Key accessories: Weighing machine, pipettes, iron

Safety: While using hazardous chemical the lab personal uses plastic eye gloves, hand gloves and apron.

Testing Required During Pad Steam Dyeing Machine Operation

  • Pick up testing,
  • Shade listing identification.

Pick up testing: Before going to Pad steam pick up of the fabric should be calculated & based on this result liquor is prepared.

Shade listing identification of pad steam dyeing machine: After each 1000 meter shade is tested in light box. Here listing problem is visualized & can be solved by increasing or decreasing pressure. Suppose in left color is lighter then lower the pressure.