The specifications of portable spectrometer are as under:
- Spectral Engine: Spectral Range: Spectral Interval: Measurement Range:
- Calibration Interval:
- Measurement Spot Size: Measurement Distance:
- Repeatability: Inter-instrument
- Gloss Geometry: Gloss Repeatability: Gloss Reproducibility: Operating Temp: Humidity:
- 45/0° dual illumination
- Full spectrum LED
- True Dual beam, 31 channel 400 – 700 nm
- 10 nm measured, 10 nm output 0-150% reflectance
- Once per week or temperature shift > 14° C (25.2° F) (self detected)
- 6 mm (1/4″) and 12 mm (1/2″)
- 38 mm (1 1/2″) nominal lens to measurement surface
- 6 mm 0.035 Mat) Maximum 12 mm 0.025 AEab Maximum (white ceramic tile)
- 6 mm 0.15 avg AEab (12 BCRA tiles) 12 mm 0.15 avg aEab (12BCRA tiles)
- 45/0°, 60° Correlated
- 0-10 GU, +/- 0.2 GU, 10-100 GU, +/- 0.6 GU 5-92 GU, 3.0 GU maximum, 1.5 GU average 10° – 40°C (50° – 104°F)
- 0-85% relative non-condensing
In a counterflow washing process, fresh water is introduced only at the exit wash unit and counterflows back toward the dirtier units. This process increases water consumption at each separate washing stage, but the overall water consumption is reduced considerably.
In textile dyeing and printing, counterflow washing is applied because most of the water consumption is related to the washing of the materials. Besides, counterflow washing provides a more efficient cleaner wash. Since 1985, the use of counterflow washing machines has resulted in a decrease of water consumption and a corresponding reduction in the volume of the wastewater. Many textile companies have adopted the counterflow washing process. The further development of these washing machines has resulted in the optimisation of the washing process leading to a further reduction of the water consumption.
With the implementation of the counterflow washing process, a water savings of 75% can be achieved.
Portable spectrometer – Counterflow washing can be applied to all washing processes in the textile industry, with the exception of washing processes that take place in yarns painting equipment, flake painting equipment and reel barrels. Converting a conventional washing process to a counterflow washing process has a payback period of several years.