Jigger Dyeing Machine for Woven Fabrics:

Dyes use for dyeing fabric in Jig or Jigger dyeing machine which is suitable for woven fabric than knitted fabric because jigger exert considerable lengthwise tension on the fabric. This is also particularly suitable for cellulosic fibers because the natural dyes generally do not exhaust well and the jig works with an exceedingly low liquor ratio. It is one of the oldest dyeing machines for dyeing fabric. There are mainly two types of jigger dyeing m/c for dyeing woven fabrics with dyes. One is open jigger dyeing machine and other is closed jigger dyeing m/c. Normally after the process of dyeing machine dyed fabric is sent to stenter machine.

Types of Jigger Dyeing Machine:

  • Textile Jigger Machine for woven fabrics,
  • Hydraulic Jigger Machine for dyed fabric,
  • Semi Automatic Dyeing Jigger for dyeing fabric,
  • Automatic Jigger Textile Machine for  woven fabrics,
  • Semi & Jumbo Jigger Machine show  how to dye fabric,
  • Mannul Jigger for for natural dyes
Dyeing Machine for Dyed Fabric
Automatic Jigger Dyeing Machine

Parts of Jigger Machine:

Parts of Jigger Machine is specified below-

dyeing fabric with jigger dyeing machine
Parts of Jigger Dyeing Machine
  • Batch Roll
  • Hinged Cover
  • Fabric Unloaded
  • Dye liquor container
  • Guide roller
  • Steam Heating Coil
  • Main Roller
  • Fabric Winding
  • Adjustable Expander Bar
  • Fabric Expander Bar
  • Dye Vat
  • Drain

Advantages of Jigger Dyeing Machine:

  • The cloth is dyed in open width form in textile industry,
  • The material to liquor ratio is 1:3 is used for dyed fabric in textile industry,
  • Liquor ratio 1:4 saves huge amount of chemical cost and steam cost,
  • Less chemical lose for woven fabric in textile industry,
  • No need training to operate how to dye fabric,

Disadvantages of Jigger Dyeing Machine:

It exerts lot of tension in the warp direction and because of this normally knitted fabrics, woolen, silk etc cannot dyed in jigger dyeing m/c because it is only for woven fabric.

Feature of Rope Dyeing Machine:

Feature of rope dyeing machine is given below with diagram-

Rope Dyeing Machine
Rope Dyeing Machine
  • Double creel for 6-36 wrap with framework (one creel for working another for stanby )
  • 2-roll, 10 ton nip for draw the rope
  • 2-role, 10 ton nip for caustic box,
  • 3-sky drum fo air timing
  • 2-compartment 10 ton nip for pre-washing
  • Steamer (27 meters yarn capacity)
  • 8-compartment 10 top nip for dyeing / washing
  • 65 sky drum with Teflon coated
  • 4-copartment 10 top nip for final wahing and softener
  • Three dry can stacks with 36 cans
  • 36 wrapo coiler section
  • Main circulation system
  • Indigo auto feeding system
  • Color bottom auto feeding system
  • Color topping auto feeding system
  • Softener auto feeding system
  • Kitchen system
  • Autofeeding for indigo and dudro caustic sulger bottoming / topping and softener with flow display
  • Level temperature and flow processing control
  • Ac drive control system with automatic field control technology

Theory of Dyes and Dyeing Fabric:

The process consists of three stages are

  • Migration of dye molecule from liquor to fiber. This process is assisted by increasing
  • temperatures and using auxiliaries ñ substances that help the dyeing process.
  • Diffusion of dye from the fiber surface into the fiber. This process is assisted by agitation of the fiber, dye bath or both together with heat.
  • Fixation ensures the dye molecule is attached to the fiber either by physical forces or chemical bonding. These forces may be weak or strong.
  • Most dyeing processes need heat to provide the energy for the dyeing to take place. This is commonly supplied by direct or indirect steam.

Dyes used in textile processing:

Description CompositionFunctionsprocessing steps
SaltsSodium Chloride


Sodium Sulfate




AcidsAcetic acid


Sulfuric acid

pH control







AlkaliSodium Hydroxide


Sodium Carbonate

pH control









Magnesium sulfate

pH controlDyeing



Sequestering agents, chelatesEDTAComplex hardness retarderPreparation



Surface active agentsAnionic






Wetting agents


Antifoaming/ defoamer

Leveling agents





Dispersing agent Distribute dye uniformlyDyeing
Oxidizing agentsHydrogen peroxide


Sodium Nitrite


Insolubilising dyes






Reducing agentsSodium hydrosulfite


Sodium sulfide

Solubilise  dyes


Remove unreacted dyes

CarriersPhenyl phenols


Chlorinated benzene

Enhanced absorptionDyeing
StabilizerSodium Silicate



Stabilize bleach bathDyeing

How To Dye Fabric:

Woven Fabrics are dyed based of their quality and blending and to the buyers standard sample appearance. The dyeing processes used in ATL are:

Reactive dyeing Process: 100 % Cotton  dyeing fabric is done in alkali medium (in accordance to existing dyes) and fixation at relatively high temperature (130 oC-160 oC).

Disperse dyeing Process: Polyester dyeing fabric is done in acid medium. There are different process for blended fabrics such as PC or CVC.

  1. Two bath process: Process for dyeing fabric separately using disperse dye for the poly part and reactive dye for the cotton part.
  2. One bath process: Process for dyeing fabric using a solution that is made by both disperse and reactive dyes together.
  3. Pigment Process
  4. Vat process


No.Item need to be checked & serviced
1.Check the indirect heating line and any leakage
2.Complier cleaning of machine
3.Cleaning of drain valves, replace seals if required
4.Check air supply filters, regulators, and auto drain seals
5.Clean filters element and blow out
6.Greasing of Unloading Roller Bearings
7.Checking of Oil line and bolts of Unloading Roller Gearbox.
8.Checking of unloading roller coupling and packing
9.Checking and cleaning (if required) of Main Vessel Level Indicator
10.Check the roller bed of the traversing unit.
11.Check the function of heat and cool controlling valves
12.Check all belts and belt tension
13.Check all door seals

Objective of Jigger Dyeing Machine:

Dyeing (Exhaust) is a chemical process by which textile substrates are immersed in liquor containing dyestuffs & chemicals by which the dyestuffs are transferred to textile substrates in a proper manner. For every shade & batch Q.C goes shade check, wash fastness, rubbing fastness, water fastness and light fastness, tear test, tensile test, pick up test, shade listing & tailing.

  • A dye trough design ensuring minimum possible liquor ratio
  • Fabric rope monitoring control system for precise calculation and control of the fabric speed and tension.
  • 3) Uniform dyeing conditions in the dye trough, independent of the batch size.
  • Water meter for controlled rinsing
  • Dosing of dyes and chemicals dependent on the fabric length passing through the dye bath

Key Accessories:

Wooden plate, Sewing m/c, A-frame/batcher, Eye protecting glass, Hand gloves, Rotation station, Bucket mixer, Filter cloth. Process can be done by this m/c:

  • Dyeing
  • Washing- Washing is done by using detergent and wetting agent.
  • Striping- Stripping is done by using Hydross(4g/l) and caustic(15g/l).
  • Mercerizing- Chemical strength is 30 Baume
  • De-finishing: Definishing is done by using soda(8g/l) and caustic(10g/l)
  • Bleaching

Standard Machine set up:

Machine set up parametersActual parameter rangeMachine set Value
Temperature58 – 60’C  initially


88 – 90’C   later

60’C, 90’C
Chemical level(500 – 520)L520 L
Fabric positionFaceFace
Speed40 – 80 m/min40 – 80 m/min


M:L- 1:10

Time: 4 hours

Fabric length: 500-1000yds

Route temperature: 57 degree centrigate

Flow chart of Jigger dyeing m/c:

Fabric inlet

Dye + Chemical Padding

Fabric outlet

Process Description of Jigger Dyeing Machine:

Fabric inlet: After mercerizing batcher is feed into the inlet of Jigger machine. Where the fabric is passed through dye bath.

Process Description of Jigger Dyeing Machine
Process Description of Jigger Dyeing Machine

Dye + Chemical padding: Both chemical & color is prepared in different tank according to required. For example —-

Washing:- Detergent / Wetting agent is used

Striping:- Hydrose + Caustic is used

De – Finishing:- Soda + Caustic

pH:- 8

Chemicals/ materials UsedUsed in average
Wetting agent(0.25 – 0.5 ) gm/l
Detergent(0.5 – 1) gm/l
Dye stuff (Reactive, Sulpher etc.)Differs depend on the shade of fabric
Caustic1.323 gm/l
Soda ash5 gm/l
Reducing agent9 – 10%
Oxidizing agent2 gm/l
Acid2 gm/l
Compressed airAs required
Salt20 gm/l
Steam, waterAs required

Here fabric is directly pass through dye bath & then batching on another roller. And again this process is start in opposite direction. This system is continued for 3-4 times. If shade is match then fabric will be outlet. If not match, dyeing will be continuing.

Fabric Outlet: If shade is ok then fabric will be outlet. And it becomes ready for finishing.

Control Panel of Jigger Dyeing Machine: From control panel all types of instruction can be provide to the machinery. This machine has a full manual control panel.

Control Panel of Jigger Dyeing Machine
Control Panel of Jigger Dyeing Machine

The operator controls every process by control switch of Jigger Dyeing Machine.

[1] Md. Ferdus Alam, B.Sc. in Textile Engineering, Southeast University, Cell # 1723300700,  Email: ferdus.j@gmail.com