How to Configure VPS Server ? How to Work with SSH Command

Log of Less Memory

04:23:33 35468 [Note] InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 128.0M
InnoDB: mmap(137363456 bytes) failed; errno 12
04:23:33 35468 [ERROR] InnoDB: Cannot allocate memory for the buffer pool
04:23:33 35468 [ERROR] Plugin ‘InnoDB’ init function returned error.
04:23:33 35468 [ERROR] Plugin ‘InnoDB’ registration as a STORAGE ENGINE failed.
04:23:33 35468 [ERROR] Unknown/unsupported storage engine: InnoDB
04:23:33 35468 [ERROR] Aborting

View Memory Usage

[email protected] [~]# free -m
total used free shared buff/cache available
Mem: 1995 776 375 106 844 955
Swap: 0 0 0

How to input SSH Terminal

There are different types of tools which is used to access in SSH mode. Putty is most popular among them. To use it follow below steps

  1. First download Putty.
  2. Then install it.
  3. Then run it.
  4. Enter your Server IP in Host Name
  5. Set Port : 22
  6. Click Open
  7. Input user Name
  8. Input Password
  9. Now Ready to input SSH Command according to your requirement

Useful SSH Commands on Putty

  1. free : It shows free and occupied memory in your server in kb
  2. free -m : It shows free and occupied memory in your server
  3. free -h : It shows free and occupied memory in your server in Mb
  4. sar -r : To see previous memory log
  5. swapon -s : To see swap devices and sizes (where swapon is installed)
  6. top -c : Command to check the sever load and CPU usage
  7. mysqldump database_name > new_filename.sql : For backup
  8. backupdb aertgar1_hefgynp 162.221.233.112 : Blue host backup database
  9. exit : To close putty
  10. clear : To clear screen
  11. ls -l : details of the files, e.g. size, modified date and time, the owner, and the permissions
  12. ls -a : shows hidden files & directories.
  13. cd home/TestDirectory/AnotherDirectory : To switch directory
  14. cd ../.. : To access home directory
  15. mkdir myfolder : To create a folder
  16. touch myfile.txt. : To create a file.
  17. rm myfile.txt : Remove a file
  18. rm -r home/hostinger/myfolder : Remove all files
  19. history : for SSH history

free -m Command Explanation

Categorytotalusedfreesharedbuff/cacheavailable
Mem:1995776375106844955
-/+ buffers/cache
Swap:51193484771

total (Mem)= 1995 : It means you have 2Gb physical RAM. (excluding small bit reserve by kernel in startup)

used (Mem)= 776 : It means OS using 776Mb RAM

free (Mem)= 375 : It means not in use physical memory 375Mb RAM

shared (Mem)= 106 : It means shared by server kernel system/ specific purposes 106Mb RAM. It is include in used

buff/cache (Mem)= 844 : It means memory used by kernel buffers & memory used by the page cache and slabs 844Mb RAM. It is include in used

available (Mem)= 955: It means estimate of how much memory is available for starting new applications, without swapping

total = used + free = 776+375 = 1151Mb

The second line gives first line values adjusted. It gives the original value for used minus the sum buffers+cached and the original value for free plus the sum buffers+cached, hence its title. These new values are often more meaningful than those of first line.

The last line (Swap:) gives information about swap space usage (i.e. memory contents that have been temporarily moved to disk).

total (Swap): this is the total amount of disk space reserved for swap.
used (Swap): the amount of swap disk space that is currently being used.
free (Swap): the amount of swap disk space that is currently not being used

How to Backup Database & Host

Step1 : Connect to your server via SSH.
Step2 : In the command line enter the following code:
mysqldump -u dbusername -p databasename > nameofdbbackup.sql

mysqldump -p -u autogar1 autoga_hqrnp > nesfile.sql
Be sure to replace:
dbusername = with the database username for the database you want to export.
databasename = with the name of the database you want to export.
nameofdbbackup = enter a name for the exported database.
Step3: Hit the Enter key and it will ask you for your password. Type your password and hit the Enter key again, it will begin exporting, this may take some time to complete, depending how large your database is. Your SSH client will take you to a new line when this process completes.The database will now be available for download in your home directory

WordPress Managed Backup

Q: So how can I get backup in Managed WP at your server?

A. Billing and account > back up account > back me up

Q. So how can I download it in my pc

A. Just click on both files, will download automatically

WordPress > manage WordPress menu

where is my WordPress files

panel > domains > manage domains > webFTP

Restoring your database from your backup on the server

If you need to restore you database from the backup you have made using the instructions above, make sure yo are in the root of your website and enter the below command again making sure to change the strings to match your information. Again, you will be asked for the database user password, so make sure you have it ready.

mysql -u username -p tablename < backupfilename.sql.

Backup all files and directories

Obviously you will need to take a backup of for files as well as the databases from your site To make a backup of all of the files and directories, connect via SSH and cd to the root of your website. Once there you can run the below command, make sure to swap out the red string with your prefered backup name.

tar -vcf backup-name.tar .

TIP: When moving around into different directories via SSH, you can print out all of the files and directories in the current directory you are in so you can be sure you are in the right place. To do this simply type ls

Mail Server Configuration

Problem: I migrated hosting server 1 month ago. Everything works fine except email send and receive. My webmail is ok. Problem is in WordPress application. I have 200 WordPress users where users can not change their password themselves. I have install project management plugin. When I assign task and check on notification, expected users dont get notifications.

Solutions:

  • However, I could see that the email services of xyz.com is still pointing to old shared server
  • Please access the link for more information: https://dnschecker.org/#MX/xyz.com
  • I would humbly request you to set the MX record of the domain as “mail.xyz.com”
  • Login to the Cpanel of xyz.com. Search for the option, “Zone editor”
  • There you can update the MX record of the domain
  • Set priority as : 0
  • Destination: mail.xyz.com
  • Propagation time can vary depending on the geographical location. Normally, the domain DNS takes 0-8 hours and is known to take up to 48 hours maximum to completely propagate.

VPS Hosting Management

Questions: What is the meaning of VPS Hosting:

Answer: In a VPS hosting arrangement, a single server is partitioned as multiple servers, each of which can be independently rebooted

Question: What is the meaning by 1 IP address in VPS/Dedicated HOSTING?

Answer: 1 IP address is the main IP address of the account.

Question: What is the meaning by 2 IP address in VPS HOSTING?

Answer: In VPS Hosting having 2 IP address you can two different cPanel

Question: For example, I am running 10 website in your shared hosting. Now I am going to upgrade my service into VPS. Science VPS hosting which have 1 Chanel, then how can I run other 9 websites into one VPS account.

Answer: You can create separate subcPanel account for the domain in VPS/dedicated account, so that you can manage each domain cPanel account separately (b)

Question: What is the meaning by 2 Core in VPS HOSTING?

Answer: Cores of VPS are the number of Virtual Central Processing Cores you will receive , with the services you are purchasing. Each core operates in conjunction with other circuits such as cache, memory management, and input/output Operators. (s)

Question: Should we get Physical server under VPS Hosting?

Answer: Yes, you will get server for one user. (b)

Question: Should we get Physical server under Dedicate Hosting?

Answer: Yes, you will get. (b)

Question: If I purchase dedicated server from you, and if I change password to all admin user account, can you access there ?

Answer: Yes, we have access to the account to check if there is any issue with the account (b)

Question: What is the meaning of 1 TB Bandwidth? I mean how many Visitor = 1 TB Bandwidth?

Answer: It depends on website build, However 1 Tb is usually more than enough to handle more than 500,000 visitors per month. (b)

Answer:There is no option to convert them, because we are unable to provide the exact amount of bandwidth will be used by each vistiors. (s)

Question: Normally How many visitor can access at time with 2 Gb RAM?

Question: What is SiteLock Security? Please explain elaborately which services are included in SiteLock Security?

Answer: SiteLock Security is a Open source software, such as WordPress, Joomla, and Drupal, can be vulnerable to attacks by hackers. While keeping software up-to-date is a good defense, services that also monitor and protect your website is a more effective approach. SiteLock offers a range of products to ensure your website is always safe from malware and other malicious attacks. It provides daily scanning, automatic malware removal, web app firewall, etc.

Question: What is Codeguard Basic? How long backup will take by you.

Answer: Codeguard is a one-click website backup and restore solution that is integrated into your hosting account for ultimate efficiency and peace of mind. For basic plan Up to 5 websites, 1GB of storage. In codeguard basic the backup can be stored in daily, weekly and monthly basis. In codeguard you can search for the last six month if there is any. (b)

Question: Would we get cPanel/WHM feature in VPS hosting?

Question: Are you offering basic codegurard with VPS?

Answer: Yes that is the basic plan price for the codeguard. The next plans of the codeguard are Professional Up to 10 websites, 5GB of storage, Premium Up to 25 websites, 10GB of storage, Enterprise Up to 100 websites, 25GB of storage (b)

Question: Would we get free CDN feature in VPS hosting?

Answer: Yes you get free CDN feature in VPS hosting.

Question: If I purchase VPS hosting, with the configuration of 1 IP, 2 core, 2 GB RAM and 1 TB Bandwidth, So how many visitor can access at a time?

There is no limitation on the visitors on the website. However, you can increase the max user connection value on the server to higher numbers so there won’t be issue with users. You can have 5000 users

Question: If I purchase VPS hosting, with the configuration of 1 IP, 2 core, 2 GB RAM and 1 TB Bandwidth, So how many visitor can access per montth?

I do understand your concern. There is no average since everyone’s sites are so unique and it is difficult to estimate how many visitors your site can handle, Simply too many variables, there is just no way to know how your site will run until it is on the server, It depends on what you upload to your site each thing consumes resources, Plugins, Themes, Databases, Scripts etc.. It is more up to the developer to determine the resources they need based on the content.

Question: My question, If I upgrade into VPS, who will manager my server and issues ?

Answer: We provide fully managed VPS services and we do not provide support with unmanaged services. However, since you will have the root access to the VPS, it needs to be managed from your end . We do provide assist with the server upgrades only. We do provide support with the VPS server issues if nay (s)

Question: Would you help to install additions software like anti malware , security service etc in VPS?

Answer: No, We do not provide support with the additional software installation, however, you may install the same from your end. Since the root access will be having the root access, you will have the access to install the modules, we do not provide support with the software installation or related issues (s)

Question: If I install a sofware , as a result a problem is occured . In this situation would you solve this issue

Answer: We can try providing the settings required for the installed software from server end (b)

Question: If I upgrade into VPS can I get this basic software and feature by default?

Answer: Unfortunately, on the VPS server, the softaculous feature is not installed and you need to purchase the feature separately (s)

Question: Can you tell me some software names thats are installed in our current shared server?

Answer: Softaculous is a software installation application, that is used by the customer across our platform. Using the sofatculous feature the accounts such as WordPress Drupal, Joomla,. Moodle etc are installed. Also, I am sorry for the incorrect information, the Softaculous will be installed on the VPS service as well, free of cost (s)

Question: Any other software is installed in our current shared hosing server except sofatculous ?

Answer: Softaculous is the main software installer, as a backup software installed quick install is also provided on the shared servers (s)

Dedicated Hosting Management

Question: What is the difference between VPS and Dedicated Hosting.

Answer: Users of VPS hosting have allocated resources just like Dedicated hosting users, however the amount of available resources on VPS servers may still not be what a website needs. For example, VPS servers often start at 2GB of RAM, whereas Dedicated servers often start with at least 4GB of RAM available. In short, Dedicated hosting allows for the same full customization and control of a VPS server, but with even more horsepower. (b)

Question: If I purchase VPS hosting now, Can we upgrade into Dedicated server anytime?

Change Log

Limit failed login attempts
Make the root user inaccessible via SSH by editing the sshd_config file
Don’t use a default port, edit the port line in your sshd_configfile
Use Captcha
Limit logins to a specified IP address or range
Two factor authentication
Unique login URLs
Monitor server logs

===============

I have successfully updated “max_user_connections =20000” at /etc/my.cnf file.

Tutorial

Subject URL
Server Swaptecadmin.net/enable-swap-on-centos-and-rhel
cmdhostinger.com/tutorials/ssh/basic-ssh-commands
cmdnamecheap.com/support/knowledgebase/article.aspx/9719/48/how-to-check-memory-usage-on-a-vps/
cmda2hosting.com/kb/developer-corner/linux/determining-a-servers-memory-usage
memoryserverfault.com/questions/85470/meaning-of-the-buffers-cache-line-in-the-output-of-free
SSH Enable bluehost.com/help/article/ssh-access#enable
SSH Enableyoutube.com/watch?v=hPkLYIscMSU
SSH Access bluehost.com/help/article/ssh-access
SSH Backupbluehost.com/help/article/mysql-import-and-export
Filezilabluehost.com/help/article/ftp-setup-using-filezilla
Bluehost Capacitybluehost.com/help/article/hosting-traffic-limitations

About Engr Kh Mashiur Rahman

He is Top Class Digital Marketing Expert in bd based on Google Yahoo Alexa Moz analytics reports. He is open source ERP Implementation Expert for RMG Industry. He is certified IT Professional from Aptech, NCC, New Horizons & Post Graduated from London Metropolitan University (External) in ICT . To Hire his service and Him Email- [email protected], Cell# +880 1792525354

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