Yarn Examining Board.
Function: The instrument is used for visual inspection of yarn like neps, thick and thin places etc.
The textile industry uses vegetable fibers (such as cotton), animal fibers (notably wool and silk), and a wide range of synthetic materials such as nylon, polyester, and acrylics. The production of natural fibers is approximately equal in amount to the production of synthetic fibers. Polyester accounts for about 50 percent of synthetics. (Chemical production of the polymers used to make synthetic fiber is not covered in this document.) The stages of textile production are: fiber production, fiber processing and spinning, yarn preparation, fabric production, bleaching, dyeing and printing, and finishing. Each stage generates wastes that require proper management.
The garments industry uses processed fabrics from textiles as their raw material. They have a wide range of products like readymade Shirts, T-shirts, Trousers, , etc. The stages of value addition for garments industry are : Sample and Marker making, Cutting, Sewing, Finishing, and Packing and Carton Making. Like textile industry, even these stages generate wastes during processing. Necessary action is required to control and dispose these wastes.
Textile production involves a number of wet processes that may use solvent and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Process wastewater is a major source of pollutants. It is typically alkaline and has high BOD5 (700 to 2000 mg/1) and COD (approximately 2000 mg/1), solids, oil and possibly toxic organic, and phenols form dyeing and finishing. Dye waste waters are frequently highly coloured and may contain heavy metals such as copper and chromium. Wool processing may release bacteria or other pathogens.
Thus, the small fabric parts generated during cutting procedure or the yarn particles or fluffs generated during further processing like sewing, inspection or finishing, are the main wastes of garments industry.