Garments Dyeing Machine
For more than last 70 years, regular research and development is going on garment dyeing machine, process and technique. Different types of garments dyeing machines have been developed and all types of dyeing machines can be classified into the following two groups- (a)Overhead padel type (b)Side padel type. This type of garments dyeing machines are the first and oldest type of garments dyeing machine still used is European countries and also used in our country.
Features of Garment Dyeing Machine
- Used for woolen knit wear type garments dyeing
- Dyeing cost is higher due to-
- Manual operation
- Higher labour load
- Manual loading and unloading of garments
- Manual chemical feeding etc.
Rotary Garment Dyeing Machine
Rotary garment dyeing machine is the modified version of padel dyeing machine. It is of two types-
- Normal atmospheric pressure type (>100˚c)
- High temperature type (<100˚c)
Normal Atmospheric Pressure Type Machine
This type of rotary garments dyeing machines are widely used in our country.
Capacity: capacity of this machine is 50 kg to 500 kg. but 300 kg capacity garments dyeing machine is mostly in garments dyeing industry.
Advantages of Garment Dyeing Machine
The main advantage of this machine is that same machine can be used for desizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing and washing treatment of the garments.
High Temperature Rotary Garment Dyeing Machine
High temperature rotary garments dyeing machine is the modified and latest version of the normal atmospheric pressure type rotary garments dyeing machine. It is a microprocessor control high temperature dyeing machine. Garments dyeing can be carried out upto 140˚c in the machine.
Features of Rotary Garment Dyeing Machine
- Very big central door facilities, material loading and unloading mechanically.
- Light m/c structure facilities, high speed m/c running with safe balance.
- Simple A/C drive and A/C converter facilities with 5-35 rpm of main cylinder.
- Additional two chemical tanks facilities, auto dozing of dyes and chemicals during operation without any manual effort.
- Separate chemical dozing tanks may be attached besides those two chemical dozing tanks for auto dozing of more number of items to the dye solution during operation.
- Separate liquor circulating pump, heater and filter facilities. Hence better dyeing quality.
- The m/c is available only built in form. Hence less risk of installation and running problem.
- Zoo dyeing or pre-treatment program could be saved and reused easily.
- The microprocessor can also be set for different questions and answers about product and production parameters.
Selection Of Interlining Before Garments Dyeing
Garments to be dyed after manufacturing. So needs careful selection of interlining. As because, during garments dyeing, the performance of interlining used in the garments may be destroyed due to effect of chemicals and temperature used in the dye bath. To avoid such problem, interlining for garments to be dyed should have the following properties-
- Interlining used in garments should take up equal amount of dyes and chemicals as the garments fabric take up.
- Due to garments dyeing, bond strength between interlining and garments fabric should be unaffected.
- Handle property of the interlining attached areas of garments should be as per expectation.
- During garments dyeing resin present in the interlining may be pick up dye molecules. Hence color depth problem should not arise in the interlining areas of the garments with remaining areas of the garments.
In the ready-made garments manufacturing industries fusible interlining is mostly used for making garments. The fusible interlining is composed of the following types of materials-
- Base fabric should be cotton
- Base fabric finishing should be done with Di-methynol Urea derivatives.
- Fusible resin coating temperature should be equal to 140˚c or more.
Basic Theory of Garments Dyeing
- Depending on wet fastness requirement of fabric, garments made from cotton grey fabric are mainly dyed with direct dye and reactive dye.
- For low color fastness direct dyes are used and for high color fastness reactive dyes are used for cotton garments.
- If cotton garments are dyed with direct dyes then hand wash separately should be marked on the care lebel of the garments.
- If reactive dyes are used for cotton garments dyeing then the following advantages may be gained-
- Good level dyeing is achieved.
- Dye migration and diffusion is better.
- Color fastness is better.
- Total color range is available.
- If the cotton garments are dyed with reactive dyes, then two types of reactive dyes are available in the market, namely- Hot brand reactive dyes and Cold brand reactive dyes
- Between these two brands of reactive dyes, hot brand reactive dyes are mostly used for garments dyeing. Because cotton garments dyeing with reactive dyes facilitates easier and quick dyeing process with reasonably good dyeing quality.
Cotton Garments Dyeing Process (dyed the garments in reactive dye)
Cotton garments made of grey fabric are dyed with reactive dyes. Before dyeing the garments need pre-treatment.
Pre-treatment process of 100 kg cotton garments are described below-
Desizing of Garment Dyeing :
Recipe : garment dyeing
sample weight : 100 kg.
M:L = 1:5 ( liquor = 100X5 =500 liter)
Desizing agent : 2 g/l i.e 1 kg.
Leonil SR : 1 g/l i.e 0.5 kg.
Steam supply to raise temp. : 90˚c
Processing time: 15 minutes.
Procedure:Rotary garment dyeing machine.
Pigment Dyeing Process
- Add 2-10% of STARCAT PD at room temperature
- Adjust pH to 8.5 with soda ash and run for 10 minutes
- Increase temperature to 50 oC at rate of 1 oC/minute and run for 15 minutes
- Drain and re-fill at room temperature and rinse 5 minutes
- In new bath adjust pH to 9.0 by ammonia solution
- Add pigment and binder and run for 10 minutes at room temperature then
- increase temperature to 60 oC, run for 15 minutes then drain, rinse and dry
Drying and Curing:
- After garment is dried, cure binder at 150 oC for 5 minutes
Prof. M Kenedy, London Metropolitan University, Dept of Textile Engineering.